According to politicsezine, Western Sahara is a disputed territory located in Northwest Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean to its west. Morocco borders the region to the north and northeast, Mauritania to the east and south, and Algeria to the southwest. The Moroccan Wall (also known as the Berm) is a fortified sand wall running east-west along the northern part of Western Sahara, separating it from Morocco. It was constructed by Morocco in 1980-81 as a military buffer zone. The wall stretches for more than 2,700 km (1,680 mi) and separates Moroccan-controlled areas from those controlled by Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR). Algeria has an undefined border with Western Sahara that has been closed since 1994 due to political disputes between Morocco and SADR over Western Saharan independence. Mauritania also shares a border with Western Sahara but it is not clearly defined due to ongoing conflict between SADR and Morocco over control of this region.
In addition to land borders, Western Sahara has two maritime borders; one with Morocco in the Atlantic Ocean and another with Mauritania in the Gulf of Cintra. The maritime border between Morocco and Western Sahara is not officially recognised by either side due to disputes over sovereignty of these waters. There are also numerous small islands located off the coast of Western Sahara which are claimed by both sides as well as disputed between them. These islands include Isla de los Faisanes, Isla del Rey Juan Carlos I, Isla de los Lobos Marinos and Isla del Fraile among others.
Government of Western Sahara
According to programingplease, the Government of Western Sahara is a semi-presidential republic led by a Prime Minister and President. The Prime Minister is the head of government, while the President serves as head of state. The Prime Minister is responsible for forming the government, while the President has a largely ceremonial role. The current Prime Minister, Abdelkader Taleb Omar, was appointed in 2018 following elections in 2016.
The government of Western Sahara is composed of two branches: the executive branch and the legislative branch. The executive branch is led by the Prime Minister and consists of ministries that are responsible for administering various aspects of public policy. These ministries include those for finance, health, education, economy and infrastructure. The legislative branch consists of a unicameral National Assembly which has seventy-five members elected every five years from twenty-seven constituencies across Western Sahara. It also has an advisory body known as the Consultative Council which provides advice to the Prime Minister on matters related to politics and economics.
The judiciary in Western Sahara is independent from any other branches of government and consists mainly of criminal courts with specialized chambers for civil cases and appeals courts at various levels. In addition to this there are also local courts that deal with minor offenses such as traffic violations or petty theft. There is also an independent Constitutional Court which deals with matters concerning constitutional law such as freedom of speech or elections disputes.
The main political parties in Western Sahara are organized into two coalitions: G10 (Group 10) which supports autonomy within Morocco; and PLS (Polisario Front) which advocates independence from Morocco through peaceful means. Other smaller parties exist but have limited influence on national politics due to their small size or lack thereof in some areas. Civil society organizations are also active in promoting human rights issues as well as advocating for greater autonomy in Western Sahara’s internal affairs.
Recent Heads of Government of Western Sahara
The current president of Western Sahara is Brahim Ghali, who was elected in 2016. He is the leader of the Algerian-backed Polisario Front, an independence movement that has been fighting for the independence of Western Sahara since 1975. Previously, he had served as the Secretary-General of the Polisario Front from 1976 until his election as president. Ghali has been a staunch advocate for the cause of Saharawi self-determination, and has been a vocal critic of Morocco’s occupation of Western Sahara. He has also sought to increase dialogue and diplomacy between Morocco and the Saharawi people in order to bring about a peaceful resolution to the conflict. Prior to Ghali’s election as president, Mohamed Abdelaziz had been president since 1976, when he was elected by members of the Polisario Front’s National Council. Abdelaziz was also one of the founders and leaders of the Polisario Front and remained its leader until his death in 2016. During his time as president, Abdelaziz sought to negotiate a peaceful resolution to the conflict with Morocco and worked closely with Algeria and other international partners in support of self-determination for Western Sahara.