Spain Religious History
In a few countries, as in Spain, religious history is closely linked with political history and with all aspects of national life. Spain already had in the course of the century. IV and at the beginning of the V about twenty episcopal seats. Under the Visigoths the number of seats still appears to have increased, to about 70, in the councils of Toledo. The Arab conquest did not immediately give a serious blow to Christianity, since at the beginning, in accordance with the principles of Islam, the rulers were quite tolerant towards Christians. But they undoubtedly exerted a great attraction on many: hence, on the basis of the liturgy and traditions dating back to the Visigothic era, the formation of those Arabized groups, or Mozarabs, who developed an art and literature characteristic and to their liturgy (see liturgy, XXI, p. 310) remained attacked even during the period of the Reconquest. But already in this period we are witnessing the foundation of monasteries (some already in the eighth and ninth centuries), the re-establishment, or the transfer, even for a short time, of various bishops, while Spanish Christianity also overcame the crisis of the adoption controversy; and alongside the revival of monastic life and military exploits against Muslims, the great military orders of Calatrava, Santiago, Alcántara, etc. arose. The same reconquest was accompanied by attempts by the papacy to bring Spain back to total uniformity with the rest of the Catholic world, through the introduction of the Roman rite: which Alexander II, as legate, managed to implement quite easily in Aragon and in Catalonia, while he could not carry it out, as pope, in Navarre. However the work was resumed by Gregory VII and Urban II, and the Roman liturgy prevailed, to the detriment of the Mozarabic one which had also been recognized as Orthodox, towards the end of the century. XI. The Jewish element was also of great importance in Spanish life in the Middle Ages. The national and religious movement of the reconquest explains precisely how, with the union of the crowns of Aragon and Castile, the “Catholic kings” felt the need to proceed, not only against Muslims, but also against Jews. And the national character of the Spanish Church also explains how, especially under the House of Habsburg, Spain was, for reasons both political, religious and dynastic, the great supporter of Catholicism against the Reformation, especially in the Netherlands, and against England; while the prevalence acquired by the clergy also explains the violence that, from the second half of the century. XVIII, assumed at various times the tendencies contrary to religious orders – in particular the Jesuits – and in general anticlerical. While they contributed to animate the struggle against the French, at the beginning of the century. XIX, also religious causes and while the concordat of 1851 still affirmed the Catholic religion as exclusive in the Spanish nation and the constitution of 1871 limited the tolerance granted to non-Catholic cults with the two clauses of respect due to Christian morality and the prohibition of public events, subsequent provisions of liberal governments authorized (r. decr. February 3, 1910) private schools in which religious instruction was not compulsory and (r. decr. June 10, 1910) allowed the use of external signs for buildings intended for non-Catholic cults. The republican constitution of December 9, 1931 declares that Spain has no official religion, guarantees freedom of conscience and religion, but severely limits the ability to acquire ecclesiastical entities, subject to taxation and rigorous control by the Ministry of Justice, while it dissolves the religious orders whose members submit to the vow of obedience to the pope.
However, the attempts repeatedly made during the century. XIX to spread the principles of the Reformation also in Spain met with little success: and the various non-Catholic churches (Evangelical, Reformed, Baptist) gather a number of adherents that in no way seem to exceed 1% of the total population. For Spain religion, please check thereligionfaqs.com.
The Catholic hierarchy in Spain currently includes the provinces of Burgos (1075; metropolitan, 22 October 1574) with suffragans Calahorra (5th century) and La Calzada (13th century) united in the 13th century. XIII, León (IV century), Osma (XII century), Palencia (III century?), Santander (1754), Vittoria (1862); of Granata (3rd century ?; metropolitan, 1492) with suffragans Almería (re-established in 1492), Cartagena (1st century; residence in Murcia), Guadix (1st century?), Jaén (7th century), Málaga (4th century; restored in 1486); Santiago de Compostela (9th century; metropolitan, 1120) with suffragans Lugo (2nd century?), Mondonedo (1114), Orense (5th century), Oviedo (811), Tuy (6th century), from Zaragoza (5th century; metropolitan, 1318) with suffragans Alharracín (12th century; since 1851 in administration in Temel), Barbastro (1100) and Huesca (6th century) united in 1851, Jaca (1063), Pamplona (10th century) V) and Tudela (1783) joined in 1851, Tarazona (V century), Temel (1577); of Seville (III century; underground, IV century) with suffragans Badajoz (1255), Cadiz (1267) and Ceuta (1421) united in 1851, Cordova (III century), Canary Islands (1406; residence in Las Palmas), Spain Cristoforo della Laguna or Tenerife (1819; joined in Canarie in 1851, separated in 1927), Mallorca (5th century), Minorca (5th century), Orihuela or Alicante (1564), Segorbe or Castellón de la Plana (6th century); of Valladolid (1595; metropolitan, 1857), with suffragans Astorga (747), Ávila (re-established in the 11th century), Ciudad Rodrigo (4th century; re-established in 1175) and Salamanca (re-established in the 10th century) united in 1851, Segovia (6th century), Zamora (10th century); also the prelature of Ciudad Real (1875), priory of the United military orders of Spain (Santiago, Calatrava, Alcántara and Montesa), immediately subject to the Holy See.