Singapore Geography

Singapore Geography


According to Topschoolsintheusa, Singapore is situated between Malaysia, with which it borders to the north, and Indonesia to the south. This island is linked to the Malay Peninsula by two bridges. The first leads to the border town of Johor Bahru in Malaysia. The second, further west, also connects with Johor Bahru in the neighborhoods of the Tuas region

Physical geography

The size of Singapore is around 3.5 times the size of Washington DC or seven times the size of intramural Paris. Most of Singapore is less than 15 meters above sea level. The highest point is Bukit Timah, 164 meters high (538 feet), and is made up of igneous rocks and granite. The northwest is composed mainly of sedimentary rocks forming hills and valleys. Singapore does not have any natural rivers or lakes, but it does have reservoirs to hold the water. Singapore has land reclaimed from the sea, from its own hills, from the seabed, and from neighboring countries. The area has increased from 581 km² in the 1960s at 699 km² today, and could still grow by about 100 km² until the 2030s.

Urban geography

In the early days of the island’s colonization by the British, the city of Singapore was located on the southern coast, around the mouth of the Singapore River. This region is now the center of the city of Singapore. The rest of the island was made up of farms, farm fields and forests. The government built a lot in the 1960s and today the island is almost fully urbanized, with some notable exceptions, including the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve and reclaimed land (polders), which are awaiting see its development. However, most of the skyscrapers and urban developments are located in the central area, where the financial and commercial districts are located, near the port of Singapore.

The Urban Development Authority is in charge of planning the island: it is about using the land more efficiently and at the same time minimizing pollution while maintaining the quality of transport, which is important due to its position as a city-state.. The road has caused environmental problems, including the accumulation of silt in the Straits of Johor. This led to differences with Malaysia: Singapore refuses to replace the road with a bridge (a suggestion from the Malays), and Malaysia has proposed a semi-bridge, which would join the road in the middle of the Strait.

Since Singapore has no lakes or rivers, the main source of drinking water is rain. As it is not enough to satisfy the demand of the population of Singapore, the city-state imports most of its waters from Malaysia and Indonesia. To reduce its dependence on imports, Singapore authorities have built reservoirs to collect rainwater, as well as water purification complexes. There is also a desalination facility on the west coast of Tuas. With which it is believed that it will finally be able to provide half of the island’s drinking water.


Singapore is just one degree north of the Equator. The climate is therefore that of the tropical forest according to the Köppen classification. There are not really marked stations. Due to its geographical position, and its proximity to the sea, the climate is characterized by a uniform temperature and pressure, high humidity and torrential rains. The average rainfall is about 2370 mm. The highest daily rainfall ever observed has been 512mm in 1978, 467mm in 1969, and 366mm on December 19, 2006.

Temperatures range from 23 to 26 ° C (minimum) and 31 to 34 ° C (maximum). The temperature never drops below 18.4 ° C or goes above 37.8 ° C in the recorded data. Relative humidity ranges from almost 100% in the morning to 60% in the afternoon. After abundant rains, the relative humidity often reaches 100%. Generally, there is more rainfall in the west than in the east of Singapore, so the eastern part is somewhat drier and slightly warmer than the west. Therefore, there is a slight variation between the two parts. This is remarkable as even a small hill like the Bukit Timah can cause this phenomenon and despite its size there can be sun on one side when it rains on the other side.

Another contrast is due to the rainy season, two per year. The first of these, or the northeast monsoon, occurs from December to mid-February. The second, or southeast monsoon, takes place from June to September. The periods between monsoons are less humid and less windy. During the northeast monsoon, the prevailing winds are from the northeast, and up to 20 km / h. Very cloudy from December to January and with frequent rains in the afternoon. Between February and March, the weather is relatively dry. There is also wind, reaching between 30 and 40 km / h in January and February. During the southeast monsoon, the southeast and southwest winds are the dominant ones. Scattered rains occur in the late morning and early afternoon.

Singapore Geography

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