Parks in Smolensk, Smolensk Region (Russia)
According to aviationopedia.com, there are several parks along the southwestern part of the fortress wall. Firstly, this is the Square of memory of heroes. It houses one of the most famous monuments of Smolensk – monument to the heroes of the war of 1812. It was erected in 1915 and is known as the “monument with eagles”. The monument is a stone rock, on top of which two mighty eagles sit and protect their nest from a Gallic warrior climbing the rock. The eagles represent the Russian defenders, and the Gaul warrior represents the Napoleonic army. Along the Square of Memory of Heroes stretches the alley of the generals participating in the defense of Smolensk in 1812. On the alley of heroes there are busts of M.B. Barclay de Tolly, P.I. Bagration, N.N. Raevsky, D.S. Dokhturova, D.P. Neverovsky and, of course, M.I. Kutuzov.
In the Park of memory of heroes there is a museum “Smolensk region during the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945”. It was opened in 1973. The museum presents documents and exhibits telling about the battle of Smolensk in 1941, about the partisan movement and the liberation of the Smolensk region. Here you can see samples of weapons of both the Soviet and German armies, battle flags, orders, medals, personal belongings of soldiers and military uniforms. The diorama “The Birth of the Soviet Guard”, which is a model of a partisan dugout, is very interesting. The museum has an open-air platform, where samples of artillery weapons and armored vehicles from the period of the Great Patriotic War and later military conflicts are exhibited. In addition, the memorial cemetery of Soviet soldiers with the Eternal Flame is located in the square.
From the inside of the southwestern part of the fortress wall, there is park named after M.I. Glinka (Blonye). In this picturesque park, a monument to M.I. Glinka. This famous Russian composer, the founder of Russian classical music, was born in the Smolensk province.
From the northern part of the fortress wall, the Pyatnitskaya, Volkova and Kostyrevskaya towers have been preserved. At the Pyatnitskaya Tower in the former building of the church in the name of St. Tikhon of Zadonsk, there is a museum of Russian vodka. Here is a whole collection of bottles from the drinks of the factory of the founder of “Bachus” merchant P.A. Machulsky. The museum also has a tasting room and a restaurant.
On the site of the former Frolovsky Gates near the Volkova Tower there is the over-gate Hodegetrievskaya Church 1793 with a bell tower. There are many religious buildings inside the fortress walls. Chief among them is the Assumption Cathedral. The laying of the cathedral began in 1677 on Cathedral Hill and was finally completed only in 1772. The former temple of the 12th century, built under Vladimir Monomakh, was destroyed during the siege of Smolensk by the Polish invaders. It was in honor of these events (the heroic defense of Smolensk in 1609-1611) a new version of the Assumption Cathedral was built. The cathedral is made in the Old Russian style with baroque elements. Inside it, a five-tiered iconostasis of the mid-18th century has been preserved. Its height is 31 m. Also in the Assumption Cathedral is a copy of the icon of Our Lady of Smolensk. The Byzantine original, which was brought from Chernigov by Prince Vladimir Monomakh, disappeared in 1941.
On Cathedral Hill, not far from the Assumption Cathedral, there is the Epiphany Cathedral (1781-1787), the bishop’s house (second half of the 18th century) with the Church of the Twelve Apostles and the Church of Cyril and Methodius, the Church of the Annunciation (1779) and the Church of John the Baptist (1703). On the southeastern slope of the mountain there is a holy spring – Amvrosievsky spring.
Of the other churches of the 18th century, which are located inside the ring of the fortress wall, one can distinguish the Intercession Church (1789-1799) at the Veselukha tower, the Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior (mid-18th century) in the Naryshkin baroque style, St. George’s Church (1782) in the transitional style from baroque to classicism and the Church of the Resurrection (1765). Also of interest here is the Trinity Cathedral (1672-1675), which now houses the Smolensk Flax Museum. The museum was opened in 1980 and became the only flax museum in Russia. It tells about the history of the development of flax growing in these parts. The exposition of the museum includes tools for the cultivation and processing of flax and a collection of linen products. The Ascension Cathedral is known for the fact that the mother of Peter I, N.K., was brought up in it. Naryshkin. Now the Cathedral houses the Exhibition Hall of the Smolensk Museum-Reserve.
In addition, in the old town it is worth seeing the building of the Lutheran church of the second half of the 19th century. In the center of the old town is the central park of culture and recreation “Lopatinsky garden”. This is the main place for festivities during the holidays and a favorite place for the townspeople to relax. Here stands the oldest monument of Smolensk – the Monument to the “Defenders of Smolensk in the battle of August 4-5, 1812 “. The monument was erected in 1841. It is worth noting that similar monuments were also installed on the Borodino field, in Maloyaroslavets, in Krasnoye and two on the territory of Belarus, however, only the Smolensk monument has survived to this day.