History of Mongolia
In ancient times, on the territory of Mongolia, there were tribal unions of the Xiongnu, Xianbei and Rourans. The first mention of the Mongols refers to the middle. 1st millennium AD Mongols were people who belonged to a small tribe that lived on the banks of the Onon and Kerulen rivers. In the 6th-12th centuries. the territory of Mongolia was part of the Turkic, Uighur, Kirghiz Khaganates and the Khitan state of Liao. In the 9th century in Central Asia, the state of the Khitans was formed, leaving numerous monuments of their culture on the land of Mongolia. The official name “Mongols” appeared in the beginning. 13th century, when Genghis Khan created a single Mongolian state. Under him and his successors, the Mongol feudal empire was formed, which collapsed in the 14th century. In con. 17th century Mongolia was conquered by the Manchus. In 1911, the rule of the Qing dynasty was overthrown in Mongolia and an independent Mongolian state (feudal-theocratic monarchy) was proclaimed. In 1915, the status of the Mongolian state was defined in the tripartite Russian-Chinese-Mongolian agreement as a broad autonomy within China, which was liquidated in 1919 by Chinese troops. In July 1921 a people’s revolution took place in Mongolia; the country was liberated from the Chinese occupiers and proclaimed a constitutional monarchy headed by the Bogdo Gegen, although all power was in fact concentrated in the hands of the people’s government. On November 26, 1924, after the death of the Bogd Gegen, the Great People’s Khural (VNKh) proclaimed the creation of the Mongolian People’s Republic (MPR). Until con. 1980s Mongolia developed along the socialist path.
Under the influence of perestroika in the USSR in the end. 1980s – early. 1990s In Mongolia, a process of renewal began, leading to a peaceful democratic revolution in 1990, as a result of which the country underwent radical changes in the political, economic and cultural fields. Mongolia is pursuing a course towards democratic renewal and the country’s entry into a market economy.
November 21, 1991 VNKh decided to change the name of the country, and in February 1992 the Mongolian People’s Republic became known as Mongolia.
Science and culture of Mongolia
The number of literate people over the age of 15 is 97.5%, incl. 98% men and 97.5% women. However, in recent years the number of illiterate people has been growing mainly due to the fact that during the 10 years of transition to market relations, approx. 68 thousand children were out of school. If in former times illiterate people were mostly rural residents, now the number of illiterate city dwellers is growing. Within the framework of the United Nations program “Universal Literacy”, adopted at the initiative of Mongolia, strategic plans are being developed for the implementation until 2015 of measures to change the standards and content of education for children and adolescents who are not literate.
According to searchforpublicschools, Mongolia is preparing for the transition to an 11-year system of education in general education schools. In 2000 there were 650-660 schools in the country, in 2002 – 700. The total number of students in general education schools in 2002 amounted to 526 thousand people.
From con. 1990s the total number of people with higher education increased by 7.6%, and women lead in this indicator, although they are inferior to men in terms of employment.
On horseback 1990s Mongolia had 23 research institutes and centers and 8 state research and production corporations. There are 9 research institutes in the system of the Academy of Sciences of Mongolia. Under the Prime Minister, the National Council for Science and Technology has been established.
Mongolia is a country of ancient culture rich in traditions. The Mongols have had their own official script since the time of Genghis Khan. The old writing is the contribution of the Mongolian nomads to world civilization. Such literary monuments as “Mongolyn Nuuts Tovchoo” (“Secret legend”) (13th century), “Tsagaan tuukh” (17th century), “Altan tovch” (18th century) and others, as well as monuments Buddhist literature. Fine arts, musical and theatrical culture of the Mongols have rich traditions.
Historical and cultural monuments in Mongolia are protected by the state. The policy of the state is aimed at preserving and reviving the cultural traditions of the people. Every year Mongolia celebrates the birthday of Genghis Khan.