Gomel, Homel [ x- ], regional capital in the southeast of Belarus, on the Sosch, (2019) 536 900 residents.
According to Trackaah.com, Gomel is an educational center with a university (founded in 1969), technical university, medical university, economic university, university of transport, planetarium. After the Chernobyl nuclear disaster, which contaminated 70% of the Gomel region, branches of the Minsk Institute of Radiology and Radiation Medicine were established. The most important branches of industry are mechanical engineering, electrotechnical and chemical industries, building materials, glass and food industries; River port, railway junction.
The Rumjanzew-Paskewitsch Castle with a classicist park (2nd half of the 18th century – 1st half of the 19th century) is located in the city center.
Gomel, first mentioned in 1142 under the name Gomij in the Russian Chronicle, came to Lithuania in 1335, to Poland in 1569 and fell to Russia during the 1st partition of Poland (1772). Gomel was badly damaged during World War II.
Mogilev, Mogilev [- lj ɔ f], Belarusian Mogilev, Mahilëu, regional capital in the east of Belarus, the Dnieper, (2019) 383 300 residents.
The city has two universities, Technical University; Machine, plant and vehicle construction (trucks), chemical fiber industry; Port facilities on the Dnieper.
Mentioned in 1267, Mogilev belonged to the Principality of Vitebsk in the 14th century, then came to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and developed into an important trading town (1561 right to municipal self-government, 1577 Magdeburg law). From 1569 it belonged to Poland. With the 1st partition of Poland, it was annexed to Russia in 1772; 1772–96 and from 1802 provincial capital. During the First World War in 1918 under German occupation. During the Second World War, occupied again by German troops on July 26, 1941 (murder of the Jewish population by a Einsatzgruppenkommando); Recaptured on June 28, 1944 by Soviet troops.
Witebsk, Vitebsk, belarusian Wizebsk, Vicebsk [-S-], regional center in the northeast of Belarus, at the Düna near the mouth of the Witba, (2019) 378 400 residents.
Vitebsk is the Catholic bishopric and educational center with a university, technical university, medical university, veterinary academy, M. Chagall Museum, international art festival (“Slavonic Bazaar”). The most important branches of industry are machine tool and device construction, leather, textile, wood and food industries. Vitebsk is a transport hub with a port and airport.
Only the Church of the Annunciation (12th century) has survived from the Middle Ages. The Gouvernementspalast (1772), the town hall (1775) and the Church of the Redeemer (1813) are from the late baroque to the classical period.
Vitebsk, first mentioned in 1021, was an important trading center on the connection route from the Baltic Sea to Constantinople. Originally part of the Principality of Polotsk, it became the capital of the Principality of Vitebsk in 1101. In 1320 Vitebsk came under Lithuanian rule, in 1569 to Poland (1597 Magdeburg town charter) and with the 1st partition of Poland in 1772 to Russia; from 1796 provincial capital and from 1938 regional capital. In the Second World War (1941-44 German occupation) Vitebsk was almost completely destroyed.
Grodno, Belarusian Hrodna [x-], regional capital in Belarus, on the Memel, (2019) 373 500 residents.
As an educational and cultural center, Grodno University (founded in 1978), agricultural and medical college, historical museum, religious history museum; Zoological Garden. Important branches of industry are man-made fibers, fertilizers, foodstuffs, textiles, leather industries and mechanical engineering. Grodno is a railway junction (border station to Poland with changing of the railway gauge).
In the area of the Old Castle are the Lower Church (1st half of the 12th century), the Upper Church (14th / 15th century) and the castle of the Polish King Stephan IV. Báthory (1586, today a museum). The New Castle dates from the middle of the 18th century. In the old town there are the churches of the Jesuits (consecrated in 1667), the Saint Bernard (1595–1618) and the Brigittenkloster (1634–42). 1765–80, 21 factories with workers’ settlements and a botanical garden (today the city park) were laid out northeast of Grodno. Some of the classicist buildings from the beginning of the 19th century have been preserved. In 1921–39, buildings in the style of Constructivism or Stalinist neoclassicism were built.
Grodno, one of the oldest cities in Belarus, was first mentioned in 1128. Conquered by the Lithuanian prince Vytautas in 1376, Grodno received partial Magdeburg town charter in 1391 and full town charter in 1496; After the Polish-Lithuanian Union (1569) it came to Poland and was the meeting place for important diets (1692, 1717, 1793). 1793–95 capital of a voivodeship. With the third partition of Poland (1795), Grodno came into the possession of Russia (provincial capital since 1801). 1915–19 under German occupation, it belonged again to Poland in 1919–39, fell to the Soviet Union in 1939 and was again occupied by German troops in 1941–44. In 1944 Grodno became the regional capital of the Belarusian Socialist Soviet Republic (since 1991 Republic of Belarus).
Swetlogorsk, Svetlogorsk, German Rauschen, city in the Kaliningrad region, Russia, on the steep coast of Samland (Amber Coast), 13,300 residents; Climatic health resort and traditional Baltic Sea resort, several sanatoriums.
With the northern part of East Prussia, Rauschen came to the Soviet Union in 1945 and is now part of Russia.
Novopolozk, Novopolock [-tsk], Belarusian Nawapolazk, Navapolack [-tsk], city in Vitebsk region, Belarus, on the Daugava river below Polotsk, (2019) 101 100 residents; University (founded in 1968); chemical industry, petroleum refinery.