In 1920 the Federation government assumed responsibility for the engagement of immigrants abroad and their transport to Australia. The governments of the individual Australian states inform the Federation of the number and categories of immigrants they are able to accommodate. At present there is also an agreement between the Federation and the British government, according to which the passage is free for children under the age of 12 and for servants; the young are delivered almost 4 / 5 of the price of passage, and half to adults. The following figures show the number of emigrants who have received this subsidy:
These favorable conditions offered to British immigration are not extended to other nationalities, which indeed encounter many obstacles. Particularly hostile is the population to the immigration of people of color. In 1906 the last Canachi (Polynesians and Melanesians) who worked on the Queensland plantations were repatriated. Chinese immigration has also been limited with restrictive laws and similar measures have been taken towards other Asian races (Japanese, Malay, Hindu). Immigrants from other backgrounds may be subjected to a dictation test (fifty words), in one of the prescribed languages. Immigrants suffering from diseases or guilty of certain crimes can be denied entry: every foreign immigrant must also show that he has 40 pounds sterling, unless maintenance is guaranteed by some resident. In recent times, the landing permit has been refused, on average, to 50 people a year. Immigrants admitted without proof:
According to MATERNITYETCHIC, Lyng published an interesting study on the life of Italians in his book Non – Britishers in Australia. Many Italians scattered in the gold fields in 1851-1860 and in 1880 they amounted to 2000; in 1911 they had risen to 6719. After the great war the Italians have grown a lot and it is estimated that in 1926 there were about 25,000 in the entire Federation. In 1880 a number of Italians founded the New Italy in the Lismore district (north-east of New South Wales); later other very flourishing colonies were formed, whose residents dedicated themselves above all to viticulture and fruit growing. But the greatest number of Italians are now in Queensland. When the Polynesians were expelled from the sugar cane plantations, and this industry was considered lost, due to the belief that the climate was unsuitable for white workers, the Italians began to replace the Canachi. At first they provided only the manpower, then they began to buy the plantations. Now, in certain districts, the majority of producers are Italians (up to 60%), and the extension of plantations and sugar production have greatly increased in the last twenty years (the latter from 90,000 to 400,000 tonn.) due to the main merit of the Italian colonization. This extends into the coastal floodplains between the 17th and 21st S., from Mackay to Townsville, Halifax, Mourilyan, Innisfail to Cairns. The economic success of the Italians led to conflicts with the British population and in 1924 a government commission was charged with examining the conditions of the region. The conclusions of the investigation were favorable to
The Germans in Australia have some importance. In 1838-39 500 Prussians led by the shepherd Kavel landed in Adelaide and formed a large part of the new settlement. They were capable breeders and farmers and by 1861 their number had risen to 8863. In Barossa (near Gawler) they also founded the wine industry. Following the war, 49 German schools in South Australia were closed and many city names changed – thus Hergott became Marree. In 1849 many Germans settled near Geelong (Victoria) and other settlements formed in the northwest of the state. In New South Wales their main center is in the south at Albany. The Lutheran church has worked successfully among the natives especially in Central Australia.
The Scandinavians have never been as numerous as the Germans. Many spread to the goldfields around 1855 and later settled in Gippsland (Victoria). However, they play a considerable part in various industries: so do the Swedes in the great orchards of the Melbourne region, the Danes in the sugar crops of Queensland and in the butter factories of the Southeast who owe much to their organization.
When the dispatch of the deportees to Australia ceased in 1840, workers from China were introduced, but they turned to the gold fields. In 1859, there were more than 35,000 Chinese in the goldfields of Victoria, despite the fact that as early as 1855 laws were enacted to stop immigration into the state: but the Chinese landed in South Australia and (in 1857) 14,400 reached the fields for this way. In 1875, there were 17,000 Chinese miners and only 1,400 Europeans in the Palmer goldfields (Queensland sept.). In 1901 virtually all Asians stopped entering Australia.